Departmnt of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of

Uyo, Nigeria


HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. The Human Immuno

deficiency Virus [HIV] is a virus that causes HIV infections and subsequently AIDS. AIDS is a

condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life threatening

infections and cancers to thrive. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen,

vaginal fluid, breast milk within these bodily fluids. HIV is present as both free virus particles

and virus within infected immune cells. HIV infects vital cell in the human immune system such

as helper CD4 T cell, macrophages. HIV infection leads to low levels of T cells through a

number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of infection T cells. The symptom of Aids is

primarily the result of condition that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy

immune system. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infection caused by bacteria, virus,

fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV

damages. When condom are used consistently by a couple in which one person is infected, the

rate of HIV infection is less than 1% per year, there is some evidence to suggest that female

condom may provide an equivalent level of protection. This exposition examines some salient issues on HIV/AIDS.


HIV/AIDS or human immunodeficiency virus is considered by some authors a global pandemic.

However, the world health organization [WHO] currently used the term global epidemic to

describe HIV. As of 2018, approximately 37.9million people are infected with HIV globally; there were about 770,000 deaths from AIDS in 2018. The 2015 global burden of disease study in a report published in the Lancet, estimated that the global incidence of HIV infection peaked in 1997 at 3.3million per year. Global incidence fell rapidly from 1997 to 2005 to about 2.6million

per year, but remain stable from 2005 t0 2015. Sub Saharan Africa is the region most affected in 2018 an estimated 61% of new HIV infection occurred in this region prevalence rations are in western and declining incidence of HIV and mortality among people infected with HIV.

Over the last 17years, has seen the incidence, prevalence ration fall from 0.06 in 2000 to 0.03 in 2017 strong and steady reduction in new HIV infection and mortality among people infected with HIV in Eastern and Southern Africa has pushed the ratio down from 0.11 in 2000 to 0.04 in

  1. Progress has been more gradual in Asia and the Pacific (0.05 in 2017) Latin America (0.06

in 2017) the Caribbean (0.05 in 2017) and Western and Central Africa (0.06 in 2017). The incidence prevalence of the Middle East and North Africa (0.08 in 2017) and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (0.09 in 2017) South Africa has the largest population of people with HIV more than any country in the world at 7.06million, as of 2017 in Tanzania, HIV/AIDS was reported to have a prevalence of 4.5% among Tanzania adult aged 14 – 15 in 2017, Nigeria has the second largest HIV epidemic in the world. The size of Nigerians population

mean 1.9million people where living with HIV in 2018. The states in Nigeria with the highest population of HIV infection are Kaduna, Akwa Ibom, Benue, Lagos, Oyo, and Kano. The people most affected or with high risk of infection are Homosexuals, people who inject drugs, young people, and women.

HIV Is a virus that spread through certain body fluid that attacks the body immune system, specifically the (CD4) monoclonal antibodies cell, often called (T cell) T – Lymphocytes. Over time HIV can destroy so many of these cells so much that the body can’t fight off infection and diseases. AIDS is a disease that can develop in people with HIV, it is the most advanced stage of HIV. But just because a person has HIV doesn’t mean they will develop AIDS.


Infection common with HIV candidacies, this is a common fungal infection that’s also known as thrush. It can be treated with antifungal medications after a simple visual examination.



The most common co – morbidities among patients with HIV include; diabetes mellitus,

Cardiovascular disease (CVD, e.g. hypertension) respiratory disease (e.g. chronic obstructive

pulmonary disease and pneumonia) and Hepatic disease (Hepatitis B and C).


The primary test for diagnosing HIV and AIDS include; Elisa test Elisa, which stands for

enzyme linked immune sorbent assay is used to detect HIV infection, if an Elisa test is positive,

the western blot test is usually administered to confirm the diagnosis. HIV can also be diagnosis

through blood or saliva or mouth swab.


The treatment for HIV is called antiretroviral therapy (ART) antiretroviral therapy is recommended for everyone who has HIV. Antiretroviral therapy can’t cure HIV, but HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. Antiretroviral therapy also reduces the risk of HIV transmission. Example drugs are stavudine, 21dovudine, Clidanosine, efavirenz.


HIV infects white blood cells in the body’s immune system called T – helper cell (or CD4 cells).

The virus attaches itself to the T – helper cell, it then fuses with it to take control of its DNA, replicate itself and releases more HIV into the blood. Knowing how HIV infects the blood helps people understand prevention and treatment options and why its important to start antiretroviral

treatment as soon as possible after testing positive.


The main side effect of HIV/AIDS is appetite loss, Lip dystrophy, Diarrhea, Fatigue, High Cholesterol, mood changes, Nausea and vomiting, Rash, trouble sleeping and other side effect.

Appetite loss: example of drugs that may cause it abacauire (ziagen), Zidovudin. Diarrhea: example of drugs that may cause it are; protease inhibitors, nucleoside / nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nritis) antibiotics, delavirdine, maraviroc, raltegravire, cobicistat, elvetegravir / cobicistat.


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UNAIDS Data2019 UNAIDS org 2019 Retrieved 5 December 2019